Fiber Optic Glossary : S


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  • Safety wire
    A means of putting wire through holes drilled in the coupling ring/nut of a connector plug, and securing the wire...
  • Sampling Rate
    The number of discrete sample measurements made in a given period of time. Often expressed in megahertz for video.
  • Saturable Absorbers
    Light absorbers with a degree of absorption which decreases at high optical intensities.
  • Saturable Bragg Reflectors
    A special type of saturable semiconductor absorbers consisting of a Bragg mirror structure and a saturable absorber layer incorporated into...
  • Saturation Energy
    A measure of the incident optical pulse energy required for achieving significant saturation of an absorber or a gain...
  • Saturation Power
    A measure of the incident optical power required for achieving significant saturation of an absorber or a gain medium.
  • SC Connector
    SC stands for Subscriber Connector- a general purpose push/pull style connector developed by NTT. SC has an advantage in keyed...
  • Scalable Coding
    The ability to encode a visual sequence so as to enable the decoding of the digital data stream at various...
  • Scalable Video
    Refers to video compression that can handle a range of bandwidths, scaling smoothly over them.
  • Scattering
    The change of direction of light after striking small particles that causes loss in optical fibers.
  • Scattering Center
    In the microstructure of a transmission medium, a site at which electromagnetic waves are scattered.
  • Schawlow Townes Linewidth
    Linewidth of a single-frequency laser with quantum noise only.
  • Scintillating Fiber
    Scintillating fibers are made with a fiber core material to produce photons in the visible range when high-energy particles pass...
  • Scoop proof
    A term to describe a longer shell design on the pin half (plug or receptacle) of a connector. The longer...
  • Scoring
    The cutting of pitch tooling surfaces by an optical technician to permit polishing compounds to flow across the surface of...
  • Scratch
    A defect on a polished optical surface whose length is many times its width. Block reek is a chainlike scratch...
  • SCSI
    An abbreviation for small computer standard interface.
  • SDM
    An abbreviation for space division multiplexer.
  • Sealing plug
    A small plastic plug (MS27488-**-1, head first) inserted into the rear grommet of a connector, especially an environmental connector, to...
  • Second Window
    Of silica-based optical fibers, the transmission window at approximately 1.3 m. Note: The second window is the minimum-dispersion window in...
  • Secondary Audio Programming
    It is the secondary audio signal that is broadcast along with a television signal and its primary audio.
  • Secondary Mode Group
    A second complete set of spectral lines separate from the main group of spectral lines in an optical spectrum.
  • Seed Lasers
    Lasers which are used for generating some seed light into an amplifier or another laser.
  • Segment
    A segment is a piece of network wire bounded by bridges, routers, repeaters or terminators.
  • Selective plating
    The applying of plating material to a limited area of a contact, especially areas susceptible to wear.
  • Self Focusing
    Focusing of a beam in a transparent medium caused by the beam itself through a nonlinear process in the...
  • Self Heterodyne Linewidth Measurement
    A technique for laser linewidth measurements based on a beat note between the beam and a delayed version of...
  • Self Phase Modulation
    Nonlinear phase modulation of a beam caused by its own intensity via the Kerr effect.
  • Self Starting Mode Locking
    Mode locking which is quickly achieved after turning on a laser without external intervention.
  • Self Terminating Laser Transitions
    Laser transitions which can not be continuously operated due to accumulation of population in the lower laser level.
  • Sellmeier Formula
    An equation for calculating the wavelength-dependent refractive index of a transparent optical material.
  • Semiconductor
    A material whose ability to conduct electricity falls between that of conductors and insulators. The conductivity of semiconductors can be...
  • Semiconductor Laser
    A light-emitting diode designed to use stimulated emission to form a coherent light output. Synonymous with laser diode and diode...
  • Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers
    Optical amplifiers based on semiconductor gain media.
  • Semiconductor Saturable Absorber Mirrors
    Saturable semiconductor absorber devices acting as nonlinear mirrors.
  • Sensitivity
    For a fiber optic receiver, the minimum optical power required to achieve a specified level of performance. Alternatively, it is the...
  • SERCOS
    An abbreviation for serial real-time communications system.
  • Serial
    Transmitting or processing data one bit at a time rather than many bits concurrently.
  • Service Channel
    Monitor laser path of wavelength outside of data channel. Performance monitored to verify fiber status.
  • Service rating
    The maximum amount of voltage or current a connector is designed to continuously carry.
  • SFP Loopback
    An small form factor test fixture used loop an electrical signal from the Tx side of a port to the...
  • Sheath
    An outer protective layer of a fiber optic cable. Also called the cable jacket.
  • Shell
    The outside case of a connector which holds the dielectric insert and contacts.
  • Shielded contact
    A contact shielded from unwanted signals (EMI/RFI) by one or more outer (protective) conductors. These contacts are not generally matched...
  • Short Wavelength
    A commonly used term for light in the 665, 790, and 850 nm ranges.
  • Shot Noise
    Quantum-limited intensity noise.
  • Side Mode
    Any observable mode of an optical device's spectrum which is not the dominant mode.
  • Side Pumping
    A technique of pumping a solid-state laser in directions which are approximately transverse to its beam direction.
  • Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR)
    The ratio of signal power to noise power.Measured in dB.
  • Silica
    Silicon dioxide (SiO2).
  • Silica Fibers
    Optical fibers based on fused silica or related materials.
  • Silicon Photonics
    Photonic technology based on silicon chips.
  • Simplex
    A fiber optic transmission system in which data can go in only a single direction.
  • Simplex Cable
    A term sometimes used for a single-fiber cable.
  • Simplex Transmission
    Transmission in one direction only.
  • Single Atom Lasers
    Lasers with only a single atom as the gain medium.
  • Single Frequency Lasers
    Lasers emitting radiation in a single resonator mode so that it emits quasi-monochromatic radiation with a very small linewidth and...
  • Single Frequency Operation
    An operation mode of a laser where only a single resonator mode acquires a significant power.
  • Single Line Laser
    A laser whose output is limited to a single wavelength.
  • Single Polarization Fibers
    Optical fibers which transmit only light with a certain polarization.
  • Single-Mode Fiber
    An optical waveguide (or fiber) in which the signal travels through its core. The fiber has a smaller core...
  • Singlemode Fiber
    A fiber with a small core, only a few times the wavelength of light transmitted, that only allows one mode...
  • Singlemode Operation
    Operation of a laser on axial resonator modes only or even on a single axial mode.
  • Sisyphus Cooling
    A mechanism for laser cooling of atoms or ions using light forces.
  • Skew Ray
    In a multimode optical fiber, a bound ray that travels in a helical path along the fiber and thus (a)...
  • Slab Dielectric Waveguide
    An electromagnetic waveguide (a) that consists solely of dielectric materials, (b) in which the dielectric propagation medium has a rectangular...
  • Slab Lasers
    Solid-state bulk lasers where the gain medium has the form of a slab
  • Slave Laser
    A laser which is injection-locked to another laser.
  • Slope Efficiency
    Differential power efficiency of a laser.
  • Slurry
    The name of the mixture of liquid and grinding or polishing compounds used in processing optical materials.
  • SM Zipcord Fiber
    Zipcord (or zip-cord) is a two fiber cable essentially with two single-fiber cables conjoined by their jackets. The jacket strip...
  • SMA
    A connector type with screw threads.
  • SMA Connector
    SMA is a fiber optic connector developed and manufactured by Amphenol Fiber Optic Products; it stands for SubMiniature version...
  • Small Signal Gain
    Optical gain for small signal intensities where no amplifier saturation occurs.
  • Smart Structures
    Materials containing sensors (fiber optic or other types) to measure their properties during fabrication and use. Also called smart...
  • SMPTE
    Abbreviation for Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers, which is the organization that publishes ANSI-approved standards, recommended practices, and...
  • SMPTE 259M
    Television standard, written by the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE), that describes a serial digital interface (SDI)...
  • SMPTE 310M
    Television standard, written by the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE), that describes a synchronous serial interface for...
  • SMT
    An abbreviation for surface-mount technology.
  • Socket contact
    A contact whose engaging end is designed to accept the entry of a pin contact.
  • Solder contact
    A pin or socket contact that accepts a conductor (wire) which is soldered onto the “solder cup,” not crimped into...
  • Solid State Laser
    A laser using a transparent substance (crystalline or glass) as the active medium, doped to provide the energy states necessary...
  • Soliton
    An optical pulse having a shape, spectral content, and power level designed to take advantage of nonlinear effects in an...
  • Soliton Mode Locking
    A mechanism for laser mode locking based on soliton pulses.
  • Soliton Period
    The distance over which higher-order solitons reproduce their temporal and spectral shape.
  • SONET
    Synchronous Optical Network. An interface standard for synchronous 2.46-Gb/s optical-fiber transmission, applicable to the Physical Layer of the OSI Reference...
  • Source
    A laser diode or LED used to inject an optical signal into fiber.
  • Source
    The means used to convert an electrical information carrying signal to a corresponding optical signal for transmission by fiber.The source...
  • Space Division Multiplex
    In fiber optics, the condition in which each fiber of a bundle carries a separate channel.
  • Span Engineering
    The process of designing a DWDM transmission span to achieve the required performance based on fiber type, the transmission distance,...
  • Spatial Hole Burning
    A distortion of the gain shape in a laser medium (or the loss spectrum in a saturable absorber medium) caused...
  • Spatial Walk Off
    The phenomenon that the intensity distribution of a beam in an anisotropic crystal drifts away from the direction of the...
  • SPC Super Physical Contact
    Specific to single mode, referring to -45dB in return loss.
  • Speckle
    Light patterns resulting from the reflection of coherent light at rough surfaces.
  • Spectral Attenuation
    Measure for the attenuation in dependence on wavelength.
  • Spectral Bandwidth
    It is the wavelength interval in which a radiated spectral quantity is not less than half its maximum value. It...
  • Spectral Beam Combining
    A class of methods for beam combining based on wavelength-sensitive beam combiners.
  • Spectral Brightness
    Brightness per unit optical bandwidth.
  • Spectral Efficiency
    The number of data bits per second that can be transmitted in a one Hertz bandwidth range.
  • Spectral Interferometry
    A class of interferometric methods where interference in the frequency domain is exploited.

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