Fiber Optic Glossary : N


  • NA
    Abbreviation for Numerical Aperture, which measures the range of acceptance of light into a fiber.
  • NA Mismatch Loss
    The loss of power at a joint that occurs when the transmitting half has an NA greater than the NA...
  • NA-Mismatch Loss
    The loss of power at a joint that occurs when the transmitting half has an NA greater than the NA...
  • NAB
    Abbreviation for National Association of Broadcasters. A trade association that promotes and protects the interests of radio and television broadcasters...
  • Nanofibers
    Optical fibers with transverse dimensions below one micrometer.
  • Nanometer nm
    A unit of measure , 10-9 m, used to measure the wavelength of light. A nanometer is one billionth of...
  • Nanosecond Lasers
    Lasers emitting optical pulses with nanosecond durations.
  • Narcissus
    A defect in infrared systems that appears as a dark circular area on a displayed image, caused by radiation reflecting...
  • Narrow Linewidth Lasers
    Single frequency lasers with a narrow optical emission spectrum.
  • Narrowband
    Refers to analog or voice-band data rates or transmission.
  • NASA
    An acronym for National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
  • National Association of Broadcasters
    A trade association that promotes and protects the interests of radio and television broadcasters before Congress, federal agencies and the...
  • National Cable Television Association
    The major trade association for the cable television industry.
  • National Electric Code
    This defines building flammatory requirements for indoor cables.
  • National Electrical Manufacturers Association
    Organization responsible for the standardization of electrical equipment, enabling consumers to select from a range of safe, effective, and compatible...
  • National Fire Protection Association
    Publisher of the National Electrical Code, and 300 other codes and standards through a full, open-consensus process.
  • NCTA
    Abbreviation for National Cable Television Association which is the major trade association for the cable television industry.
  • Near End Crosstalk
    The optical power reflected from one or more input ports, back to another input port.
  • Near Field Region
    The close-in region of an antenna wherein the angular field distribution is dependent upon distance from the antenna. Synonyms: near...
  • Near Field Scanning
    A technique for measuring the refractive-index profile of an optical fiber by using an extended source to illuminate an endface...
  • Near Infrared
    The part of the infrared near the visible spectrum, typically 700 nm to 1500 nm or 2000 nm, although it...
  • NEC
    Abbreviation for National Electric Code which defines building flammatory requirements for indoor cables.
  • NEMA
    Abbreviation for National Electrical Manufacturers Association which is the organization responsible for the standardization of electrical equipment, enabling consumers to...
  • Neodymium Doped Gain Media
    Laser gain media containing laser-active neodymium ions.
  • NEP
    Abbreviation for Noise Equivalent Power, which is the radiant power that produces a signal-to-noise ratio of unity at the output...
  • Network
    A system of cables, hardware and equipment used for communications.
  • Network Access Control
    Electronic circuitry that determines which workstation may transmit next or when a particular workstation may transmit.
  • Network Architecture
    The structures and protocols of a computer network.
  • Network Interface Controllers
    Electronic circuitry that connects a workstation to a network.
  • Network Layer
    The third layer of the OSI model of data communications. It involves routing data messages through the network using alternative...
  • Network Management
    The collection of processes, tools and methods necessary to design, install, operate and maintain a network.
  • Network Topology
    The specific physical, rather it is real, logical, or virtual, arrangement of the elements of a network. Common network topologies...
  • Neutral Density Coating
    A coating that appears gray to the eye and has a flat absorption curve throughout the visible spectrum. Metals are...
  • Neutral Density Filter
    Also known as a gray filter. A light filter that decreases the intensity of the light without altering the relative...
  • NFPA
    Abbreviation for National Fire Protection Association, which is the publisher of the National Electrical Code, and 300 other codes and...
  • NIST
    An acronym for National Institute of Standards and Technology.
  • Nodal Points
    Of all the rays passing through a lens from off-axis objects point to its corresponding image point, there is always...
  • Nodes
    In computer-based LANs, at least two intelligent systems needing to share data are required. These intelligent systems, when connected to the...
  • Noise
    Random electrical signals, generated by circuit components or by natural disturbances, that make transmitted data inaccurate by introducing errors.
  • Noise Eaters
    Devices for reducing the intensity noise of an optical beam by automatically adjusting the degree of power attenuation.
  • Noise Equivalent Power
    The radiant power that produces a signal-to-noise ratio of unity at the output of a given optical detector.
  • Noise Figure
    A measure for the amount of excess noise added in an amplifier.
  • Noise Measurement Units
    A series of terms used to express both weighted and unweighted circuit noise, as stated in dBrn (decibel rated noise). Noise...
  • Non Dispersion Shifted Fiber
    The most popular type of single-mode fiber deployed. It is designed to have a zero-dispersion wavelength near 1310 nm.
  • Non Zero Dispersion Shifted Fiber
    A dispersion shifted single mode fiber that has the zero dispersion wavelength near the 1550 nm window, but outside the...
  • Nonclassical Light
    Light with properties which can be explained only within quantum optics.
  • Noncritical Phase Matching
    A technique of phase matching which does not require a critical angular adjustment.
  • Nonlinear Crystal Materials
    Crystal materials exhibiting an optical nonlinearity, usually of χ(2) type.
  • Nonlinear Frequency Conversion
    The conversion of input light to light of other frequencies using optical nonlinearities.
  • Nonlinear Index
    A parameter for quantifying the Kerr nonlinearity of a medium.
  • Nonlinear Optics
    The part of optics dealing with optical nonlinearities and their applications.
  • Nonlinear Scattering
    Direct conversion of a photon from one wavelength to one or more other wavelengths.
  • Normal Dispersion
    Dispersion characterized by an increasing index of refraction in the medium as the frequency of the propagating light increases.
  • NRZ
    Abbreviation for nonreturn to zero which is a common means of encoding data that has two states termed “zero” and...
  • NTSC
    The analog video broadcast standard used in North America, set by the National Television System Committee.
  • Numerical Aperture
    The total internal reflection is what causes light to be guided along the length of an optical fiber. Light must...
  • Numerical Aperture (NA)
    A numerical value that expresses the light gathering ability of a fiber. The imaginary cone which defines the acceptance area...
  • Numerical Aperture Loss
    A loss of optical power that occurs at a splice or a pair of mated connectors when the numerical aperture...
  • Numerical Aperture NA
    The sine of the vertex angle of the largest cone of meridional rays that can enter or leave an optical...
  • Nyquist Frequency
    The lowest sampling frequency that can be used for analog-to-digital conversion of a signal without resulting in significant aliasing. Normally,...

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