Fiber Optic Glossary : M

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  • M2 Factor
    A parameter for quantifying the beam quality of laser beams.
  • MAC
    Abbreviation for Multiplexed Analog Components which is a video standard developed by the European community.
  • Mach bands
    The illusory appearance of a light or dark band at a line of brightness contrast that enhances the edge between...
  • Mach Zehnder Interferometer
    An optical device that separates a series of optical channels so alternating wavelengths emerge out its two ports, sometimes called...
  • Machine Vision
    The use of devices for optical non-contacting sensing to automatically receive and interpret an image of a real scene, in...
  • Macrobending
    Macrobending occurs when the fiber is bent into a visible curvature.
  • Macrobending Loss
    Macrobending loss is optical loss that occurs due to a large bend in the cable.
  • Main Cross Connect
    The centralized portion of the backbone cabling used to mechanically terminate and administer the backbone cabling, providing connectivity between equipment...
  • Manchester
    Balanced signaling code used at lower data rates.
  • Mandrel Wrapping
    In multimode fiber optics, a technique used to modify the modal distribution of a propagating optical signal.
  • Master Laser
    A single-frequency laser used for injection locking one or several other lasers.
  • Master Oscillator Fiber Amplifier
    A laser system containing a fiber amplifier for boosting the output power.
  • Master Oscillator Power Amplifier
    A laser system consisting of a seed laser and a laser amplifier for boosting the output power.
  • Mate
    The joining of two connectors.
  • Mated pair
    A plug and receptacle joined or to be joined together.
  • Material Dispersion
    In optical fiber communication, the wavelength dependence of the velocity of propagation (of the optical signal) on the bulk material...
  • Material Scattering
    Of an electromagnetic wave, scattering that is attributable to the intrinsic properties of the material through which the wave is...
  • MAU
    Abbreviation for medium attachment unit. This is an active component of an Ethernet LAN connecting peripheral devices with the electrical...
  • Mbps
    Megabits per second. Also expressed as Mbit/s.
  • McCumber Theory
    A theory applied to absorption and emission properties of laser gain media, in particular to solid-state media with Stark level...
  • MDI
    Abbreviation for medium dependent interface, which is the mechanical and optical interface between the fiber optic medium and the...
  • MDPE
    Abbreviation used to denote medium density polyethylene. A type of plastic material used to make cable jacketing.
  • Mean Launched Power
    The average power for a continuous valid symbol sequence coupled into a fiber.
  • Mean Time Between Failure MTBF
    Used by manufacturers to measure reliability of equipment, it is almost always measured in hours.
  • Mechanical Splice
    A semi-permanent connection between two fibers made with an alignment device and index matching fluid or adhesive.
  • Mechanical Splice
    Of optical fibers, a splice, i.e. , permanent joint, accomplished by aligning the mating fibers in some kind of mechanical...
  • Mechanical Splicing
    Joining two fibers together by mechanical means to enable a continuous signal. Elastomeric splicing is one example of mechanical...
  • Media Access Control MAC
    Defines token-passing protocol for FDDI networks, as are packet formation, addressing and recovery mechanisms.
  • Media Interface Connector MIC
    A mated connector pair that provides an attachment between an FDDI node and a fiber optic cable plant. The MIC...
  • Medium Attachment Unit MAU
    The portion of the physical layer between the MDI and AUI that contains the electronics which send, receive, and manage the...
  • Medium Dependent Interface MDI
    The mechanical and optical interface between the fiber optic medium and the MAU.
  • Megahertz (MHz)
    A unit of frequency that is equal to one million hertz.
  • Meridional Ray
    In fiber optics, a ray that passes through the optical axis of an optical fiber (in contrast with a skew...
  • Messenger Cable
    The linear supporting member, usually a high strength steel wire, used as the supporting element of a suspended aerial cable....
  • Metastable State
    The state of an atom, just below a higher excited state, which an electron occupies momentarily before destabilizing and emitting...
  • Metropolitan Area Network MAN
    A cable backbone used to interconnect local area networks at various sites (corporate offices and factories, for example) in a...
  • Mezzanine Compression
    Contribution level quality encoded high-definition television signals, they are typically split into two levels: high level at 140 Mb/s and...
  • MIC
    Abbreviation for media interface connector. A mated connector pair that provides an attachment between an FDDI node and a fiber...
  • Micro
    In the SI system a unit of measure, prefix meaning one-millionth, (10-6 m).
  • Microbend Modulated Sensor
    A type of fiber optic sensor that detects changes in pressure, vibration, sound level or acceleration by monitoring the ejection...
  • Microbending
    In optical fiber, sharp but microscopic curvatures that create local axial displacements of a few microns and spatial wavelength displacements...
  • Microbending Loss
    Transmission loss in optical fibers caused by packaging processes; it is considered a power-coupling effect from the guided modes to...
  • Microelectromechanical Systems MEMS
    Refers to micron-size complex machines that have physical dimensions suitable for the fabrication of optical switches for use in state-of-the-art...
  • Micron
    One millionth of a meter (10 to the power of -6m). An average human hair is approximately 80 microns.
  • Micron (um)
    Another term for micrometer. One millionth of a meter. 10exp-6 meter.
  • Microscope Fiber Optic Inspection
    A microscope used to inspect the end surface of a connector for flaws or contamination or a fiber for cleave...
  • Microwave Dish
    A parabolic shaped antenna used for high-frequency RF signals.
  • Microwave Transmission
    Communication systems using very high-frequency RF to carry the signal information.
    An abbreviation for military specification.
    An abbreviation for US military standard.
  • MIL STD 2042B
  • MIL T 29504
    The MIL-T-29504 is a military specification for termini. The termini may be used in conjunction with: MIL-DTL-38999, MIL-C-28876, MIL-PRF-83526, and...
  • Millivolt drop
    Voltage loss due to resistance created by a crimp joint.
  • Minimum Bend Radius
    The radius below which an optical fiber or fiber-optic cable should not be bent.
  • Minimum Dispersion Window
    The window of an optical fiber at which material dispersion is very small.
  • Minimum Loss Window
    Of an optical fiber, the transmission window at which the attenuation coefficient is at or near the theoretical (quantum-limited)...
  • Misalignment Loss
    The loss of power resulting from angular misalignment, lateral displacement, and end separation.
  • Modal Dispersion
    The temporal spreading of a pulse in an optical waveguide caused by modal effects.
  • Modal Distribution
    In an optical waveguide operating at a given wavelength, the number of modes supported, and their propagation time differences.
  • Modal Index
    A parameter determining the phase delay per unit length for propagation in a waveguide.
  • Modal Loss
    In an open waveguide, such as an optical fiber, a loss of energy on the part of an electromagnetic wave...
  • Modal Noise
    Noise generated in an optical fiber system by the combination of mode-dependent optical losses and fluctuation in the distribution of...
  • Mode Cleaner Cavities
    Optical cavities used as filters for improving the beam quality of laser beams.
  • Mode Cleaners
    Devices which can improve the beam quality of laser beams.
  • Mode Competition
    The phenomenon that different resonator modes experience laser amplification in the same gain medium, leading to cross-saturation effects.
  • Mode Coupling
    In an optical waveguide, the exchange of power among modes.
  • Mode Field Diameter (MFD)
    The diameter of optical energy in a singlemode fiber.Because the MFD is greater than the core diameter, MFD replaces core...
  • Mode Filter
    A device that removes optical power in higher order modes in fiber.
  • Mode Hopping
    The phenomenon that a laser exhibits sudden jumps of optical frequency, which are associated with transitions between different modes of...
  • Mode Locked Diode Lasers
    Diode lasers which are actively, passively or hybrid mode-locked for generating ultrashort pulses.
  • Mode Locked Fiber Lasers
    Fiber lasers which are actively or passively mode-locked for generating ultrashort pulses.
  • Mode Mixing
    The numerous modes of a multi-mode fiber differ in their propagation velocities. As long as they propagate independently of each...
  • Mode Partition Noise
    In an optical communications link, phase jitter of the signal caused by the combined effects of mode hopping in the...
  • Mode Scrambler
    A device that mixes optical power in fiber to achieve equal power distribution in all modes. Mode stripper: A device...
  • Mode Stripper
    This is a device to strip the cladding modes from fiber.
  • Mode Volume
    The number of bound modes that an optical fiber is capable of supporting.
  • Modes
    A mode is a single electromagnetic field pattern that travels in fiber; the characteristic of the propagation of light through...
  • Modulation
    The ability to superimpose an external signal on the output beam of the laser as a control.
  • Modulator
    A device that imposes a signal on a carrier.
  • Monitor Current
    Current generated by monitor photodiode when it receives light emitted from rear facet of laser diode.
  • Monitor Photo Diode
    The optical detector used to capture light, which exists in the back facet of the laser source. It is typically...
  • Monochromatic
    Consisting of a single wavelength. In practice, radiation is never perfectly monochromatic but, at best, displays a narrow band of...
  • Monolithic Solid State Lasers
    Solid-state lasers where the whole laser resonator consists only of one piece of crystal or glass.
  • MQJ
    Measurement Quality Jumper. A high quality reference cable designed to provide accurate and consistent test results. Note: The U.S. Navy...
  • MSO Providers
    MSO stands for Multi-System Operators used in the broadband and communications industry. For more information, visit the link below.
  • MT Connector
    Multi-fiber connector housing up to 72 fibers in a single ferrule.
  • MT RJ Connector
    MT-RJ stands for Mechanical Transfer Registered Jack. MT-RJ is a fiber-optic cable connector that is very popular for small form...
  • MTBF
    Abbreviation for mean time between failure. Used by manufacturers to measure reliability of equipment, it is almost always measured in...
  • MTRJ Connector
    MT-RJ stands for Mechanical Transfer Registered Jack. MT-RJ is a fiber-optic cable connector that is very popular for small form...
  • MU Connector
    MU is a small form factor SC. It has the same push/pull style, but can fit 2 channels in the...
  • Multi Fiber Cable
    Fiber optic cable bearing many fibers independently sheathed and capable of carrying unrelated signals. They often surround a central strength...
  • Multi Quantum Well Laser
    A laser structure with a very thin (about 10 nm thick) layer of bulk semiconductor material sandwiched between the two...
  • Multifiber Joint
    A fiber optic connector or splice that mates two multifiber cables, optically aligning all of the individual fibers simultaneously.
  • Multimode Distortion
    In an optical waveguide, the distortion resulting from differential mode delay. Axial rays, with the shortest path length, will have...
  • Multimode Fiber
    A fiber with core diameter much larger than the wavelength of light transmitted that allows many modes of light to...
  • Multimode Optical Waveguide
    An optical waveguide that will allow more than one bound mode to propagate.
  • Multiphonon Transitions
    Transitions between electronic levels of atoms or ions in solid media caused by emission of multiple phonons.
  • Multiple Reflection Noise
    The fiber optic receiver noise resulting from the interference of delayed signals from two or more reflection points in a...
  • Multiple Sub Nyquist Encoder
    A high-definition standard developed in Europe that delivers 1125 lines at 60 frames per second.
  • Multiplex
    The combination of several signals onto a single communications channel.

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